Risk Factor: BM
Class: Anti-infectives/ Cephalosporins
Fetal Risk Summary
Cefonicid is a parenteral, semisynthetic cephalosporin antibiotic. Reproduction studies in mice, rats, and rabbits found no evidence of impaired fertility or fetal harm, including testicular toxicity, at doses up to 40 times usual adult human dose (1).
No studies on the use of cefonicid in human pregnancy have been located. Cephalosporins are usually considered safe to use during pregnancy (see other cephalosporins for published human experience).
Breast Feeding Summary
Cefonicid is excreted into breast milk in low concentrations. Milk levels 1 hour after a 1-g IM dose were equal to or less than 0.3 g/mL, averaging 0.16 g/mL (2). Even though these concentrations are low, three potential problems exist for the nursing infant: modification of bowel flora, direct effects on the infant, and interference with the interpretation of culture results if a fever workup is required. Although not specifically listing cefonicid, the American Academy of Pediatrics classifies other cephalosporin antibiotics as compatible with breast feeding (3).
- Product information. Monocid. SmithKline Beecham Pharmaceuticals, 1997.
- Lou MA Sr, Wu YH, Jacob LS, Pitkin DH. Penetration of cefonicid into human breast milk and various body fluids and tissues. Rev Infect Dis 1984;6(Suppl 4):S81620.
- Committee on Drugs, American Academy of Pediatrics. The transfer of drugs and other chemicals into human milk. Pediatrics 1994;93:13750.